References

Vitamin A:

Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.

B1 (Thiamin):

English RM, Najman JM, Bennett SA. Dietary intake of Australian smokers and nonsmokers. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1997 Apr;21(2):141-6.

Bidoli E, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Levi F, Parpinel M, Talamini R, Negri E, Maso LD, Franceschi S. Micronutrients and laryngeal cancer risk in Italy and Switzerland: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2003 Jun;14(5):477-84.

B6:

O'Callaghan P, Meleady R, Fitzgerald T, Graham I; European COMAC group. Smoking and plasma homocysteine. Eur Heart J. 2002 Oct;23(20):1580-6.

Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Virtamo J, Selhub J, Barrett MJ, Albanes D. Association of the B-vitamins pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B(6)), B(12), and folate with lung cancer risk in older men. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Apr 1;153(7):688-94.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Albanes D, Nieto FJ, Hartman TJ, Tangrea JA, Rautalahti M, Sehlub J, Virtamo J, Taylor PR. Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6): 535-41.

B12:

Bergmark C, Mansoor MA, Swedenborg J, de Faire U, Svardal AM, Ueland PM. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients operated for lower extremity ischaemia below the age of 50--effect of smoking and extent of disease. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1993 Jul;7(4): 391-6.

Saito M, Kato H, Tsuchida T, Konaka C. Chemoprevention effects on bronchial squamous metaplasia by folate and vitamin B12 in heavy smokers. Chest. 1994 Aug; 106(2):496-9.

Folic Acid:

Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, Jackson SH. Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Intern Med. 2002 Dec;252(6):497-503

O’Grady HL, Leahy A, McCormick PH, Fitzgerald P, Kelly CK, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Oral folic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in cigarette smokers. J Surg Res. 2002 Aug; 106(2):342-5.

Mangoni AA, Arya R, Ford E, Asonganyi B, Sherwood RA, Ouldred E, Swift CG, Jackson SH. Effects of folic acid supplementation on inflammatory and thrombogenic markers in chronic smokers. A randomised controlled trial. Thromb Res. 2003 Apr 15;110(1):13-7.

Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, Brants HA, van Poppel GA, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ, van den Brandt PA. A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Apr;9(4):357-65.

Piyathilake CJ, Macaluso M, Hine RJ, Richards EW, Krumdieck CL. Local and systemic effects of cigarette smoking on folate and vitamin B-12. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Oct;60(4):559-66.

Vitamin C:

Lykkesfeldt J, Christen S, Wallock LM, Chang HH, Jacob RA, Ames BN. Ascorbate is depleted by smoking and repleted by moderate supplementation: a study in male smokers and nonsmokers with matched dietary antioxidant intakes. Am J Clin Nutr.
2000 Feb;71(2):530-6.

Panda K, Chattopadhyay R, Chattopadhyay DJ, Chatterjee IB. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jul 15; 29(2):115-24.

Panda K, Chattopadhyay R, Ghosh MK, Chattopadhyay DJ, Chatterjee IB. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke induced oxidative damage of proteins and increased proteolysis. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Nov;27(9-10):1064-79.

Schindler TH, Magosaki N, Jeserich M, Olschewski M, Nitzsche E, Holubarsch C, Solzbach U, Just H. Effect of ascorbic acid on endothelial dysfunction of epicardial coronary arteries in chronic smokers assessed by cold pressor testing. Cardiology. 2000;94(4):239-46

Schindler TH, Nitzsche EU, Munzel T, Olschewski M, Brink I, Jeserich M, Mix M, Buser PT, Pfisterer M, Solzbach U, Just H. Coronary vasoregulation in patients with various risk factors in response to cold pressor testing: contrasting myocardial blood flow
responses to short- and long-term vitamin C administration. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Sep 3;42(5):814-22.

Nam CM, Oh KW, Lee KH, Jee SH, Cho SY, Shim WH, Suh I. Vitamin C intake and risk of ischemic heart disease in a population with a high prevalence of smoking. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Oct;22(5):372-8.

Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. Interaction of vitamin C with the relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur Respir J. 2000 Sep;16(3):397-403.

Omenaas E, Fluge O, Buist AS, Vollmer WM, Gulsvik A. Dietary vitamin C intake is inversely related to cough and wheeze in young smokers. Respir Med. 2003 Feb;97(2): 134-42.

Vitamin E:

Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Ludin E, Bernasconi F. Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basel study. Int J Cancer. 1996 Apr 10;66(2):145-50.

Woodson K, Tangrea JA, Barrett MJ, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Albanes D. Serum alpha-tocopherol and subsequent risk of lung cancer among male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Oct 20;91(20):1738-43.

Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Supplemental vitamin E intake and prostate cancer risk in a large cohort of men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Oct;8(10):893-9.

Porkkala-Sarataho EK, Nyyssonen MK, Kaikkonen JE, Poulsen HE, Hayn EM, Salonen RM, Salonen JT. A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of 200 mg alpha-tocopherol on the oxidation resistance of atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J
Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov;68(5):1034-41.

Kaikkonen J, Porkkala-Sarataho E, Morrow JD, Roberts LJ 2nd, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, Tuomainen TP, Ristonmaa U, Poulsen HE, Salonen JT. Supplementation with vitamin E but not with vitamin C lowers lipid peroxidation in vivo in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Free Radic Res. 2001 Dec;35(6):967-78.

Salonen RM, Nyyssonen K, Kaikkonen J, Porkkala-Sarataho E, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Tuomainen TP, Valkonen VP, Ristonmaa U, Lakka HM, Vanharanta M, Salonen JT, Poulsen HE; Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation. 2003 Feb 25;107(7):947-53.

Selenium:

Kocyigit A, Erel O, Gur S. Effects of tobacco smoking on plasma selenium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations and related antioxidative enzyme activities. Clin Biochem. 2001 Nov;34(8):629-33.

Hartman TJ, Taylor PR, Alfthan G, Fagerstrom R, Virtamo J, Mark SD, Virtanen M, Barrett MJ, Albanes D. Toenail selenium concentration and lung cancer in male smokers (Finland). Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Dec;13(10):923-8.

Wei WQ, Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Dong ZW, Sun XD, Fan JH, Gunter EW, Taylor PR, Mark SD. Prospective study of serum selenium concentrations and esophageal and gastric cardia cancer, heart disease, stroke, and total death. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;79(1):80-5.

Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Garland L, Turnbull BW, Clark LC, Marshall JR. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1285-91.

Hu G, Cassano PA. Antioxidant nutrients and pulmonary function: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Epidemiol. 2000 May 15; 151(10):975-81.

Watercress:

Hecht SS, Chung FL, Richie JP Jr, Akerkar SA, Borukhova A, Skowronski L, Carmella SG. Effects of watercress consumption on metabolism of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Dec;4(8):877-84.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Murphy SE. Effects of watercress consumption on urinary metabolites of nicotine in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Oct;8(10): 907-13.

Boysen G, Kenney PM, Upadhyaya P, Wang M, Hecht SS. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate and 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate on benzo[a]pyrene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone metabolism in F-344 rats. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Mar;24(3):517-25.

Hecht SS. Chemoprevention of cancer by isothiocyanates, modifiers of carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):768S-774S. Review.

Spitz MR, Duphorne CM, Detry MA, Pillow PC, Amos CI, Lei L, de Andrade M, Gu X, Hong WK, Wu X. Dietary intake of isothiocyanates: evidence of a joint effect with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Oct;9(10):1017-20.

Brocolli Sprouts:

Brown L, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, Giovannucci EL, Chasan-Taber L, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):517-24.

Caicoya M. Lung cancer and vegetable consumption in Asturias, Spain. A case control study Med Clin (Barc). 2002 Jul 13;119(6):206-10.

Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.

Talalay P, Fahey JW. Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11 Suppl):3027S-33S. Review.

Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, Verhoeven DT, van Poppel GA, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ, van den Brandt PA. Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Feb;11(2):101-15.

N-Acetylcysteine:

Van Schooten FJ, Nia AB, De Flora S, D'Agostini F, Izzotti A, Camoirano A, Balm AJ, Dallinga JW, Bast A, Haenen GR, Van't Veer L, Baas P, Sakai H, Van Zandwijk N. Effects of oral administration of N-acetyl-L-cysteine: a multi-biomarker study in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Feb;11(2):167-75.

De Flora S, Izzotti A, D'Agostini F, Balansky RM. Mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, with special reference to smoking-related end-points. Carcinogenesis. 2001 Jul;22(7):999-1013. Review.

Bernhard D, Pfister G, Huck CW, Kind M, Salvenmoser W, Bonn GK, Wick G. Disruption of vascular endothelial homeostasis by tobacco smoke: impact on atherosclerosis. FASEB J. 2003 Dec;17(15):2302-4. Epub 2003 Oct 02.

Carnevali S, Petruzzelli S, Longoni B, Vanacore R, Barale R, Cipollini M, Scatena F, Paggiaro P, Celi A, Giuntini C. Cigarette smoke extract induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Jun;284(6):L955-63. Epub 2003 Jan 24.

Lu Q, Bjorkhem I, Xiu RJ, Henriksson P, Freyschuss A. N-acetylcysteine improves microcirculatory flow during smoking: new effects of an old drug with possible benefits for smokers. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Jul;24(7):511-5.

Green Tea:

Weitberg AB, Corvese D. The effect of epigallocatechin galleate and sarcophytol A on DNA strand breakage induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines and stimulated human phagocytes. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Sep;18(3):433-7.

Klaunig JE, Xu Y, Han C, Kamendulis LM, Chen J, Heiser C, Gordon MS, Mohler ER 3rd. The effect of tea consumption on oxidative stress in smokers and nonsmokers. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999 Apr;220(4):249-54.

Weisburger JH, Chung FL. Mechanisms of chronic disease causation by nutritional factors and tobacco products and their prevention by tea polyphenols. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Aug;40(8):1145-54. Review.

Sun CL, Yuan JM, Lee MJ, Yang CS, Gao YT, Ross RK, Yu MC. Urinary tea polyphenols in relation to gastric and esophageal cancers: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Sep;23(9):1497-503.

Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;42:25-54.

Higdon JV, Frei B. Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Crit Rev Food Sci Technol. 2003;44(1):89-143.

Nomura M, Ma W, Chen N, Bode AM, Dong Z. Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-kappaB activation by tea polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(10):1885-1890.

Hakim IA, Harris RB, Brown S, Chow HH, Wiseman S, Agarwal S, Talbot W. Effect of increased tea consumption on oxidative DNA damage among smokers: a randomized controlled study. J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3303S-3309S.

Grape Seed Extract:

Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Tran MX, Stohs SJ. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997 Feb;95(2):179-89.

Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs S, Ray SD, Sen CK, Preuss HG. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:260-70. Review.

Preuss HG, Wallerstedt D, Talpur N, Tutuncuoglu SO, Echard B, Myers A, Bui M, Bagchi D. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med. 2000;31(5-6):227-46.

Vigna GB, Costantini F, Aldini G, Carini M, Catapano A, Schena F, Tangerini A, Zanca R, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Mezzetti A, Fellin R, Maffei Facino R. Effect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokers. Metabolism. 2003 Oct;52(10):1250-7.

Ye X, Krohn RL, Liu W, Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, McGinn TR, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Jun;196(1-2):99-108.

Bagchi M, Kuszynski CA, Balmoori J, Joshi SS, Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Protective effects of antioxidants against smokeless tobacco-induced oxidative stress and modulation of Bcl-2 and p53 genes in human oral keratinocytes. Free Radic Res. 2001 Aug;35(2):181-94.

Lycopene:

Clinton SK. Lycopene: chemistry, biology, and implications for human health and disease. Nutr Rev 1998; 56(2):35-51.

Levy J, Bosin E, Feldman B, et al. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either a-carotene or b-carotene. Nutr Cancer 1995; 24(3):257-66.

Pastori M, Pfander H, Boscoboinik D, et al. Lycopene in association with a-tocopherol inhibits at physiological concentrations proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1998; 250:582-5.

Sesso HD, Buring JE, Norkus EP, Gaziano JM. Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;79(1): 47-53.

Lagiou P, Benetou V, Tebelis N, Papas A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A. Plasma carotenoid levels in relation to tobacco smoking and demographic factors. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 May;73(3):226-31.

Bohm F, Edge R, Burke M, Truscott TG. Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide - ROS components from cigarette smoke. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001 Nov 15;64(2-3):176-8.

Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.

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